Department of Cognitive Science
An EEG/MEG study of anticipatory postural adjustment in a bimanual load-lifting task
Tommy Ng (tommy.ng@.mq.edu.au)
Paul Sowman (paul.sowman@.mq.edu.au)
Jon Brock (jon.brock@.mq.edu.au)
Blake Johnson (blake.johnson@.mq.edu.au)Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Science, Sydney
AbstractAnticipatory postural adjustments (APA) are necessary for counteracting destabilizing forces induced by prime movements. The present study examined APA in a bimanual load-lifting task using simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). A 1-kg weight placed on the left arm was either lifted by an experimenter (imposed condition) or by the subject (voluntary condition). In the imposed condition, inhibition of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the load-bearing muscle (biceps brachii, BB) only occurred after the onset of unloading and was accompanied by event-related desynchronisation (ERD) of cortical activity in the beta frequency band (15-30 Hz). This ERD was localized to the primary sensory cortex using beamforming analyses. In the voluntary condition, EMG inhibition and beta ERD occurred prior to the onset of lifting and beta ERD was localized to the primary motor cortex. This anticipatory cortical and muscle activity ties in well with the feedforward property of APA. This paradigm will be used to study problems of neuro-motor coordination in autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
Citation details for this article:Ng, T., Sowman, P., Brock, J., Johnson, B. (2010). An EEG/MEG study of anticipatory postural adjustment in a bimanual load-lifting task. In W. Christensen, E. Schier, and J. Sutton (Eds.), ASCS09: Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the Australasian Society for Cognitive Science (pp. 261-269). Sydney: Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Science.
Download the PDF here
- American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
- Asperger, H. (1944). Die ‘autistischen psychopathen’ im kindesalter. Archive fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, 117, 76-136.
- Babiloni, C., Carducci, F., Cincotti, F., Rossini, P.M., Neuper, C., Pfurtscheller, G., & Babiloni, F. (1999). Human movement-related potentials vs desynchronisation of EEG alpha rhythm: a high-resolution EEG study. NeuroImage, 6, 658-665.
- Bauman, M.L. (1992). Motor dysfunction in autism. In: Joseph A.B., Young R.R., eds. Movement Disorders in Neurology and Neurophychiatry (pp. 658-661). Boston: Blackwell Scientific.
- Belenkiy, V.E., Gurfinkel, V.S., & Paltsev, E.L. (1967). On elements of control of voluntary movements. Biofizica, 12, 135-141 (In Russian).
- Brinkman, C. (1981). Lesions in supplementary motor area interfere with a monkey’s performance of a bimanual coordination task. Neuroscience Letter, 27, 267-270.
- Brinkman, C. (1984). Supplementary motor area of the monkey’s cerebral cortex: short- and long-term deficits after unilateral ablation and the effects of subsequent callosal section. Journal of Neuroscience, 4, 918-929.
- Brock, J., Brown, C.C., Boucher, J., & Rippon, G. (2002). The temporal binding deficit hypothesis of autism. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 209-224.
- Cheyne, D., Bakhtazad, L., & Gaetz, W. (2006). Spatiotemporal mapping of cortical activity accompanying voluntary movements using an event-related beamforming approach. Human Brain Mapping, 27, 213-229.
- Corden, D.M., Lippold, O.C.J., Buchanan, K., & Norrington, C. (2000). Long-latency component of the stretch reflex in human muscle is not mediated by intramuscular stretch receptors. Journal of Neurophysiology, 84, 184-188.
- Deecke, L., Lang, W., Beisteiner, R., Uhl, F., Lindinger, G., & Cui, R.Q. (1998). Experiments in movements using DC-EEG, MEG, SPECT and fMRI. (Proceedings of the International Symposium on Brain Mapping Oiso/Japan 13-15 Sept. 1996) In: Current Progress in Functional Brain Mapping – Science and Applications (pp. 53-60). London. Smith-Gordon & Co. Ltd.
- Deecke, L., Weinberg, H., & Brickett, P. (1982). Magnetic fields of the human brain accompanying voluntary movement: Bereitschaftmagnetfeld. Experimental Brain Research, 48, 144-148.
- Dewey, D., Cantell, M., & Crawford, S.G. (2007). Motor and gestural performance in children with autism spectrum disorders, developmental coordination disorder and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 246-256.
- Diedrichsen, J., Verstynen, T., Lehman, S.L., & Ivry, R.B. (2005). Cerebellar involvement in anticipating he consequences of self-produced actions during bimanual movements. Journal of Neurophysiology, 93, 801-812.
- Forget, R. & Lamarre, Y. (1989). Anticipatory postural adjustments in the absence of normal peripheral feedback. Brain Research, 508, 176-179.
- Ghaziuddin, M. & Butler E. (1998). Clumsiness in autism and Asperger syndrome: a further report. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 42, 43-48.
- Gillberg, C. & Coleman M. (1992). The biology of the autistic syndromes. 2nd ed. London: Mac Keith Press.
- Green, D., Baird, G., Barnett, A.L., Henderson, L., Huber, J., & Henderson, S.E. (2002). The severity and nature of motor impairment in Asperger’s syndrome: a comparison with specific developmental disorder of motor function. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 43, 655-668.
- Haswell, C.C., Izawa, J., Dowell, L.R., Mostofsky, S.H., & Shadmehr, R. (2009). Representation of internal models of action in the autistic brain. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 970-972.
- Hirschfeld, H. & Forssberg, H. (1991). Phase-dependent modulations of anticipatory postural activity during human locomotion. Journal of Neurophysiology, 66, 12-19.
- Hugon, M., Massion, J., & Wiesendanger, M. (1982). Anticipatory postural changes induced by active unloading and comparison with passive unloading in man. European Journal of Physiology, 393, 292-296.
- Jansiewicz, E.V., Goldberg, M.C., Newschaffer, C.J., Denckla, M.B., Landa, R., & Mostofsky, S.H. (2006). Motor signs distinguish children with high functioning autism and Asperger’s syndrome from controls. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 36, 613-621.
- Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217-250.
- Kilner, J.M., Baker, S.N., & Lemon, R.N. (2002). A novel algorithm to remove electrical cross-talk between surface EMG recording s and its application to the measurement of short-term synchronization in humans. Journal of Physiology, 538, 919-930.
- Lacquaniti, F. & Maioli, C. (1989). The role of preparation in tuning anticipatory and reflex responses during catching. Journal of Neuroscience, 9, 134-148.
- Leary, M.R. & Hill, D.A. (1996). Moving on: Autism and movement disturbance. Mental Retardation, 34, 39-53.
- Lewis, G.N., Polych, M.A., & Byblow, W.D. (2004). Proposed cortical and sub-cortical contributions to the long-latency stretch reflex in the forearm. Experimental Brain Research, 156, 72-79.
- Massion, J., Alexandrov, A., & Vernazza, S. (1998). Coordinated control of posture and movement: respective role of motor memory and external constraints. In Latash, M.L. (Eds.) Progress in motor control (Volume 1) Bernstein’s traditions in movement studies (pp. 127-150). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
- Massion, J., Ioffe, M., Schmitz, C., Vialett, F., & Gantcheva, R. (1999). Acquisition of anticipatory postural adjustments in a bimanual load-lifting task: normal and pathological aspects. Experimental Brain Research, 128, 229-235.
- McFadyen, B., Malouin, F., Dumas, F. (2001) Anticipatory locomotor control for obstacle avoidance in mid-childhood aged children. Gait Posture, 13, 7-16.
- Morton, S.M., Lang, C.E., Bastian, A.J. (2001). Inter- and intra-limb generalization of adaptation during catching. Experimental Brain Research, 141, 438-445.
- Nazarali, N., Glazebrook, C.M., & Elliot, D. (2009). Movement planning and reprogramming in individuals with autism. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 39, 1401-1411.
- Nikolic, S.J. & Ilic-Stosovic, D.D. (In Press). Detection and prevalence of motor skill disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, doi, 10.1016/j.ridd. 2009.05.003
- Nunez, P.L. & Westdorp, A.F. (1994). The surface laplacian, high resolution EEG and controversies. Brain Topography, 6, 221-226.
- Pan, C.Y., Tsai, C.L., & Chu, C.H. (2009). Fundamental movement skills in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 1-12.
- Pfurtscheller, G (1977). Graphical display and statistical evaluation of event-related desynchronization (ERD). Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 43, 757-760.
- Pfurtscheller, G (1992). Event-related synchronization (ERS): an electrophysiological correlate of cortical areas at rest. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 83, 62-69.
- Pfurtscheller, G. & Aranibar, A. (1979). Evaluation of event-related desynchronization (ERD) preceding and following voluntary self-paced movement. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 46, 138-146.
- Rektor, I., Louvel, J., & Lamarche, M. (1998). Intracerebral recording of potentials accompanying simple limb movements: a SEEG study in epileptic patients. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 107, 277-286.
- Rinehart, N.J., Bellgrove, M.A., Tonge, B.J., Brereton, A.V., Howells-Rankin, D., & Bradshaw, J.L. (2006). An examination of movement kinematics in young people with high-functioning autism and Asperger’s Disorder: further evidence for a motor planning deficit. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 36, 757-767.
- Rinehart, N.J., Bradshaw, J.L., Brereton, A.V., & Tonge, B.J. (2001). Movement preparation in high-functioning autism and Asperger disorder: a serial choice reaction time task involving motor reprogramming. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 3, 79-88.
- Rinehart, N.J., Tonge, B.J., Bradshaw, J.L., Iansek, R., Enticott, P.G., & Johnson, K.A. (2006). Movement-related potentials in high-functioning autism and Asperger’s disorder. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 48, 272-277.
- Robinson, S.E. V.J. (1999). Functional neuroimaging by Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry (SAM). In Recent Advances in Biomagnetism. Edited by: Yoshimoto T KMKSKHNN. Sendai, Japan, Tokhu Univ. Press: 302-305.
- Schmitz, C., Martin, N, & Assaiante, C. (2002). Building anticipatory postural adjustment during childhood: a kinematic and electromyographic analysis of unloading in children from 4 to 8 years of age. Experimental Brain Research, 142, 354-364.
- Schmitz, C., Martineau, J., Barthelemy, C., & Assaiante, C. (2003). Motor control and children with autism: deficit of anticipatory function? Neuroscience Letter, 348, 17-20.
- Sockurkova, D., Rektor, I., Jurak, P., & Stancak, A. (2006). Intreacerebral recoding of cortical activity related to self-paced voluntary movements: a Bereitschaftspotential and event-related desynchronisation/synchronisation. SEEG study. Experimental Brain Research, 173, 637-649.
- Struppler, A., Burg, D., & Erbel, F. (1973). The unloading reflex under normal and pathological conditions in man. In: Desmedt, J.E. (ed.). New developments in electromyography and clinical neurophysiology. Vol. 3. (pp. 603-617). S Karger Publ., Basel.
- Taga, G. (1998). A model of the neuro-musculo-skeletal system for anticipatory adjustment of human locomotion during obstacle avoidance. Biological Cybernetics, 78, 9-17.
- Taylor, J.L. (2005). Independent control of voluntary movements and associated anticipatory postural responses in a bimanual task. Clinical Neurophysiology, 116, 2083-2090.
- Teitelbaum, P., Teitelbaum, O., Nye, J., Fryman, J., & Maurer, R.G. (1998). Movement analysis in infancy may be useful for early diagnosis of autism. Proceedings in National Academia of Science, 95, 13982-13987.
- Traub, M.M., Rothwell, J.C., & Marsden, C.D. (1980). Anticipatory postural reflexes in Parkinson’s disease and other akinetic-rigid syndromes and in cerebellar ataxia. Brain, 103, 393-412.
- Viallet, F., Massion, J., Massarino, R., & Khalil, R. (1987). Performance of a bimnaul load-lifting task by Parkinsonian patients. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 50, 1274-1283.
- Viallet, F., Massion, J., Massarino, R., & Khalil, R. (1992). Coordination between posture and movement in a bimanual load-lifting task: putative role of a medial frontal region including the supplementary motor area. Experimental Brain Research, 88, 674-684.
- World Health Organization (1992). International classification of diseases and disorders (10th ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: Author.
- Wednesday 19th Oct,
Dr Lyn Tieu,
"Preschoolers' knowledge of plural meanings."
- Friday 28th Oct,
Research Assistant Professor Tal Yarkoni,
"What can large-scale meta-analytic modelling of fMRI data tell us ..."
- Monday 31st Oct,
Professor Kyo Kageura,
"Scaffolding communications and interactions in translator training: ..."
- Tuesday 8th Nov,
"Respect. Now. Always. Project."
- Dr Mariia Kaliuzhna
- Dr Devin Terhune
- Professor Karin Landerl
- Dr Ashleigh Smith
- Adam Lalak
- Professor Oron Shagrir
- Xiaohe Yuan [Previous Visitors]